There was Antony, leading the pack of revellers. Meier —7. After news of Munda reached Rome, Senate and citizens had devised all manner of honours, including fifty days of thanksgiving, the addition of the anniversary to the calendar as a festival to be celebrated with races in the Circus, as well as the title of Imperator which was to be a hereditary possession. There was clearly a somewhat manic attempt at improvisation on the part of the Senate in finding new ways to acknowledge and appease by the gift of all the various honours, most of which Caesar accepted.
Dio lists the conglomeration of honours voted to him by the time of the assassination, although not all were necessarily acted upon. On all official occasions he could appear in triumphal garb and wear a laurel wreath. Adorned with purple toga and golden wreath he watched from the Rostra, 23 Cf. Dio But now a kingly preeminence had settled in as solely a spectacle and a central focus of the communal festivities.
The vast ambition attributed to Caesar, which events made so plausible, had long aimed at such distinct pre-eminence. Prior to his own successes Caesar advertised the importance of his family in collective memory. His colleague was, of course, Bibulus, who split the cost of the required entertainment but found all the credit taken by Caesar. He gets all the gratia and Bibulus compares himself to Pollux. A lex limited the number of gladiators he could exhibit; also Plut.
Caesar also restored the Marian monuments e. There was to be another grand feast and distribution of food: Caes. Looking at Caesar 31 brance of his daughter, a private loss that no one had ever before marked so publicly. These, following hard on the heels of his unprecedentedly grand fourfold triumphing of September 46, surpassed all previous ludi.
Some might bridle at the transgression of boundaries between men and gods and at the obvious vanity it demonstrated.
Nevertheless Caesar, not least in all his visible glory, surely did seem wondrous to many. His gestures towards 34 Suet. Gladiatorial munera were often accompanied by viscerationes and epula, e. Livy Beacham Beacham 81—4 provides a useful and succinct account of divinely spectacular honours, Weinstock has a full discussion. When the ludi Victoriae Caesaris were first celebrated, Cicero was pleased to note an absence of applause for both Caesar and Victory: Att. Suet Beard, North and Price Durkheim Looking at Caesar 33 differentiated roles between mass and elite but also because such differences seemed all the more natural on occasions often fraught with powerful emotions, whether solemn awe or joyous giddiness or, much more likely, an ever shifting spectrum of moods.
Thus no civic occasion was more highly prized by the Roman notability than a triumph, which was a charismatic ceremony which in some sense deified the triumphator. We shall look in more detail at some memorable triumphs later and notice that despite many reversals of the mundane, such as a mortal decorated to resemble a statue of Jupiter, or the very presence of an army within the pomerium sacred boundaries of the city, the occasion underscored central ideological foundations of the res publica.
An individual was indisputably and transcendently great, the representations of his patriotic achievements usually quite wondrous as empire came home to the heart of the city and to the gaze of the citizenry in whose name and by whose bestowal of imperium he had been sent forth. The crowd could marvel and cheer. The citizens could also smirk and jeer, joining in with the carnivalesque taunts of bawdy songs. And then good food and nice wine. Everywhere there were things to admire and affective experiences to remember. Even strangers, if believed to be able to access divine power, could receive a warm reception from the Roman crowd despite hostility from political leaders.
He claimed to have come by command of the goddess and obtained an audience with the consuls and the Senate before addressing the people from the Rostra. His success in instilling awe deisidaemonia in his audience was probably helped by a costume that was, in Roman eyes, simply remarkable: an enormous gold crown and a robe shot through with gold. Aulus Pompeius, a tribune, however, forbade him to wear his crown and attacked him verbally on his next appearance on the Rostra. The priest thereupon refused to appear again in public, saying that both he and the goddess had been insulted.
After Pompeius had fallen ill and then died three 47 Suet. Protest at such unauthorized charisma was futile. Times were troubled by fear of barbarian invasion, and it is a truism that people are more mindful of divinity in times of misfortune. Furthermore, especially when their striking emotionality is struck within a religious context, the graces of majestic notables need not ipso facto have been resented by humbler citizens. Ceremony presented him as the charismatic embodiment of all that was best about the values and 48 49 51 52 53 Diod. Varro Fr. Scullard Looking at Caesar 35 achievements of Rome and its history.
Scipio and there would be others of his gens who could do the same made direct appeals to the citizenry in their streets as effective as those he made to the citizens in his armed camps and battle-ranks. Even before his triumph he was the object of spectacular attention in Rome: when he returned from Africa at elections, he sacrificed one hundred oxen on the Capitoline to Jupiter.
There were, of course, crowds watching. The allusions to divinity were firmly in the public domain. His imago after all dwelt in the atrium of Jupiter. It was at the ludi that the intervention of Neptune in Spain was kept alive in the popular memory;56 it was by a dramatic destruction of accounting books in the Senate that he articulated his conscious belief in himself and the rightness of his cause. Walbank Scullard 19— Neptune helping to lower the waters protecting New Carthage: Polyb.
Scipio is compared to Hercules by Cicero Rep. See further Galinsky for references to Scipio in Plautus. Gruen and n. Scipio was accused. The messiness in details of the testimony suggests how only the central event of the drama was truly memorable. He flexed his presence and the meaning of that presence before the memories and the gaze of his fellow but individually infinitely less significant citizens.
He led the crowd to trample over its constitutional prerogatives. They marvelled and they followed. This power can conveniently be understood and described as kingly.
It perhaps corresponds to practical manifestations of power and thus popular comprehensions of power as much as it does to the unwritten rubrics of constitutional norms. Not only was the pseudo-divine felicitas of a triumphator normally ephemeral but there was also a prevailing expectation of reciprocity in civic deference.
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And certainly the routines of the later res publica were animated by populist insistence upon an ideology of habitual civilitas. Wallace-Hadrill Looking at Caesar 37 prominent were neither physically nor pompously prominent. In his populist performances, such as his orchestration of the funeral for his aunt Julia, Caesar tapped into the remembrances of a man whose pre-eminence had always been girt about with respect for citizenhood. BJ Beard, North and Price —4.
Andrew Bell's analysis of the power of prestige in civic communities of the ancient world demonstrates the importance of crowds' aesthetic and emotional judgement upon leaders and their ambitious claims. Spectacular Power in the Greek and Roman City. Andrew Bell. In the great cities of Greece and Rome, politicians and kings sought to be seen.
And Pompey certainly did, as we shall see. But he was also civically adept in any situation. People had seen him canvassing, at the centre of an enormous entourage. They had watched a pontifex maximus speak solemnly and passionately to gods as well as most charmingly to jurors.
They had heard him acknowledge their dignity too, and secured his sincerity upon remembrance of exquisite material offerings, which showed the rightfulness of the subordination of men and beasts to all the treasure and the dignity enjoyed by his sovereign Roman audience, as well as his own control of such instruments of patriotic pride. As we saw at the Lupercalia, the sentiments of audiences required constant heedfulness. No skilled interpreter of the phenomenology of dignitas, as Caesar was by instinct and habitual practice, would shirk the challenge of engaging the iudicium and voluntas of the crowd, even though men with great and impressive dignitates perhaps never deferred to their environment and its normative, civil expectations any more completely than did Scipio.
In provision of the stuff of joy Caesar had always worked unrelentingly to show himself to be most generous. He was, of course, only following trends set by others.
He worked the affective dimension of politics hard, providing the very best of glad times that would dispose his audience to see him in the most favourable light. Those feasts, for example, were fabulous. This was usual after triumphs. Triumphant generals usually gave their public banquets in the temple of Hercules: Athen. Pliny the Elder reports on triumphales cenae for the populus HN 9.
The food might be themed with triumphal cinnabar—it was usual, says Pliny HN His magnificence retreated to a more private sphere of competition in contrast to Cimon whose Life is paired with his own by Plutarch; Lucullus spent his money on food for a few Comp. He kept a slave for the specific purpose of keeping him away from food Pliny HN Crassus, however, was not so private in his spending, choosing to set up thousands of tables to feast the people in his first consulship. His private entertainments had, Plutarch claims Crass. Aelius Tubero is telling. When asked to fit out a dining-room by Q.
Fabius Maximus, who was giving a feast in the name of his uncle Scipio Aemilianus, he chose shabby furnishings. Voters took offence and revenge at the praetorian elections. They liked private frugality but public splendour. After his fourfold triumph Caesar needed thousands of tables for his festive hospitality. Caesar was only exhibiting himself and his resources in a spectacular fashion that had evolved over centuries.
For many, politics had everything to do with money and memories, food and all manner of wondrousnesses that confirmed a dignity not allotted 81 Suet.